Learn more. Ireland has a traditionally competitive print media, which is divided into daily national newspapers and weekly regional newspapers, as well as national Sunday editions. [170] This rate declined somewhat during the subsequent 2006–2011 intercensal period, with an average annual percentage change of 1.6%. Ireland's culture was for centuries predominantly Gaelic, and it remains one of the six principal Celtic nations. Ireland, Irish Éire, country of western Europe occupying five-sixths of the westernmost major island of the British Isles. [201][202], Religious freedom is constitutionally provided for in Ireland. [242], Gaelic football and hurling are the traditional sports of Ireland as well as most popular spectator sports. [206], The Church of Ireland, at 2.7% of the population, is the second largest Christian denomination. [80], Foreign relations are substantially influenced by membership of the European Union, although bilateral relations with the United Kingdom and United States are also important. The 1922 state, comprising 26 of the 32 counties of Ireland, was "styled and known as the Irish Free State". James Joyce (1882–1941) published his most famous work Ulysses in 1922, which is an interpretation of the Odyssey set in Dublin. It is about 486 kilometres (302 miles) long and about 288 kilometres (179 miles) wide. [220] The Irish round tower originated during the Early Medieval period. Ireland has advanced plans in place as part of its comprehensive preparedness to deal with public health emergencies such as COVID-19 (Coronavirus). The capital and largest city is Dublin, which is located on the eastern side of the island. [24] This set the pattern of emigration for the century to come, resulting in constant population decline up to the 1960s.[25][26][27]. [237] RTÉ operates two national television channels, RTÉ One and RTÉ Two. Around 40% of the country's population of 4.9 million people resides in the Greater Dublin Area. [251] The country has produced several internationally successful golfers, such as Pádraig Harrington, Shane Lowry and Paul McGinley. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. The Local Government Reform Act 2014 provides for a system of thirty-one local authorities – twenty-six county councils, two city and county councils and three city councils. Ireland is the name of an island to the west of Great Britain. ", "Economic crisis and political cold war, 1949-57", "Statute Law Revision (Pre-Union Irish Statutes) Act, 1962", "National Archives – Ireland and European Unity", "National Income and Expenditure 2017 (Figure 1.1 Growth Rates)", Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine, "Native trees cover just 2% of Ireland. The island of Ireland contains two political units: Republic of Ireland (also called Eire), which is a country covering about 80% of the island of Ireland. Section 2 of the Republic of Ireland Act 1948 states, "It is hereby declared that the description of the State shall be the Republic of Ireland." However, the founding EC members remained skeptical regarding Ireland's economic capacity, neutrality, and unattractive protectionist policy. The Central Bank of Ireland introduced a new statistic, "modified GNI" (or GNI*), to remove these distortions. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Apple, Google, Microsoft, Facebook), which delivered a GDP growth rate of 26.3% (and GNP growth rate of 18.7%) in 2015. Roscommon is the only landlocked county in the province. Get Dublin's weather and area codes, time zone and DST. Irish traditional music has remained vibrant, despite globalising cultural forces, and retains many traditional aspects. Ireland emerged from the conflict that marked its birth as an independent state to become one of Europe's economic success stories in the final decade of the twentieth century. [139][140] A 2017 study ranks Ireland as the 5th largest global Conduit OFC (conduits legally route funds to tax havens). So, former Ireland rugby internationals Michael Bradley and Tony Ward (who I was once mistaken for) have dark hair and eyes, and the olive complexion. First centuries of English rule (c. 1166–c. [162], Dublin is served by major infrastructure such as the East-Link and West-Link toll-bridges, as well as the Dublin Port Tunnel. The President is the formal Supreme Commander of the Defence Forces, but in practice these Forces answer to the Government via the Minister for Defence. Following a national plebiscite in July 1937, the new Constitution of Ireland (Bunreacht na hÉireann) came into force on 29 December 1937. The Irish Constitution describes Irish as the "national language", but English is the dominant language. Recognised primary and secondary schools must adhere to the curriculum established by the relevant authorities. And Ireland wouldn't be the only place where that type existed in Britain or Ireland. [18] The Constitution of Ireland, adopted in 1937, provides that "the name of the State is Éire, or, in the English language, Ireland". It is estimated that over 80 million people of Irish descent live outside Ireland, in countries such as the … [44] At the time, joining the UN involved a commitment to using force to deter aggression by one state against another if the UN thought it was necessary. The annual Dublin Marathon and Dublin Women's Mini Marathon are two of the most popular athletics events in the country. [63], The country officially exited recession in 2010, assisted by a growth in exports from US multinationals in Ireland. Every resident of Ireland is entitled to receive health care through the public health care system, which is managed by the Health Service Executive and funded by general taxation. [98] Indeed, foreign multinationals are the driver of Ireland's economy, employing a quarter of the private sector workforce,[99] and paying 80% of Irish business taxes. [100][101][102] 14 of Ireland's top 20 firms (by 2017 turnover) are US-based multinationals[103] (80% of foreign multinationals in Ireland are from the US;[104][105] there are no non-US/non-UK foreign firms in Ireland's top 50 firms by turnover, and only one by employees, that being German retailer Lidl at No. Standard time (Irish Standard Time (IST), UTC +1) starts March 28, 2021; The IANA time zone identifier for Ireland is Europe/Dublin. [75][76], Garda Síochána na hÉireann (Guardians of the Peace of Ireland), more commonly referred to as the Gardaí, is the state's civilian police force. [86], Since 1999, Ireland has been a member of NATO's Partnership for Peace (PfP) program and NATO's Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council (EAPC), which is aimed at creating trust between NATO and other states in Europe and the former Soviet Union.[87][88]. [256] Contraception was controlled in Ireland until 1979, however, the receding influence of the Catholic Church has led to an increasingly secularised society. Many non-Irish people ask "What is the difference between the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland?". [32] The Irish Republic's Ministry of Dáil Éireann sent a delegation under Ceann Comhairle (Head of Council, or Speaker, of the Daíl) Seán T. O'Kelly to the Paris Peace Conference of 1919, but it was not admitted. [106] However, due to a rise in the cost of public borrowing due to government guarantees of private banking debt, the Irish government accepted an €85 billion programme of assistance from the EU, International Monetary Fund (IMF) and bilateral loans from the United Kingdom, Sweden and Denmark. Also known as the Republic of Ireland since 1949. One-third of the emigrants were aged between 15 and 24. The right to life of the unborn was protected in the constitution by the Eighth Amendment in 1983; this provision was removed following a referendum, and replaced it with a provision allowing legislation to regulate the termination of pregnancy. The strength of the British press is a unique feature of the Irish print media scene, with the availability of a wide selection of British published newspapers and magazines. [271] It was adopted as the flag of the Irish Free State in 1922 and continues to be used as the sole flag and ensign of the state. Golf is another popular sport in Ireland, with over 300 courses countrywide. [160], Railway services are provided by Iarnród Éireann (Irish Rail), which operates all internal intercity, commuter and freight railway services in the country. The total fertility rate (TFR) in 2017 was estimated at 1.80 children born per woman, below the replacement rate of 2.1, it remains considerably below the high of 4.2 children born per woman in 1850. Experience Ireland’s wildlife, scenery and culture at a leisurely pace along Ireland's longest off-road cycling route at the heart of Ireland’s Ancient East. While daily attendance was 13% in 2006, there was a reduction in weekly attendance from 81% in 1990 to 48% in 2006, although the decline was reported as stabilising. The United Kingdom is the biggest importer of Ireland’s butter shipments followed by the Netherlands, Germany, and Belgium. During the Great Famine, from 1845 to 1849, the island's population of over 8 million fell by 30%. The city’s old dockside neighbourhoods have given way to new residential and commercial development. No. Northern Ireland occupies about one-sixth of the island of Ireland and is separated on the east from Scotland, another part of the United Kingdom, by the narrow North Channel, which is at one point only 13 miles (21 km) wide. [240] RTÉ Radio operates four national stations, Radio 1, 2fm, Lyric fm, and RnaG. [171] In 2018 the median age of the Irish population was 37.1 years. Where and When is IST Observed? The London to Dublin air route is the ninth busiest international air route in the world, and also the busiest international air route in Europe, with 14,500 flights between the two in 2017. Washed by abundant rain, the country’s pervasive grasslands create a green-hued landscape that is responsible for the popular sobriquet Emerald Isle. Following Catholic Emancipation, cathedrals and churches influenced by the French Gothic Revival emerged, such as St Colman's and St Finbarre's. [232], Beginning with the American designed art deco church at Turner's Cross in 1927, Irish architecture followed the international trend towards modern and sleek building styles since the 20th century. Christianity is the predominant religion, and while Ireland remains a predominantly Catholic country, the percentage of the population who identified as Catholic on the census has fallen sharply from 84.2 percent in the 2011 census to 78.3 percent in the most recent 2016 census. The Irish Civil War (June 1922 – May 1923) was the consequence of the creation of the Irish Free State. Connacht. Those intending to pursue higher education normally take this examination, with access to third-level courses generally depending on results obtained from the best six subjects taken, on a competitive basis. He was born in Great Britain (historians are unsure if he was born in Wales, Scotland or England) and at the age of 16 was kidnapped by Irish raiders. Christianity introduced simple monastic houses, such as Clonmacnoise, Skellig Michael and Scattery Island. [257] A constitutional ban on divorce was lifted following a referendum in 1995. Ireland is the world's largest exporter of software. All enlistment is voluntary. [165][166] Gaelic tradition expanded and became the dominant form over time. Professor of Modern Irish History, University College, Dublin, National University of Ireland, 1945–79. Netball is represented by the Ireland national netball team. So long Irish siesta. To the east, the Irish Sea connects to the Atlantic Ocean via St George's Channel and the Celtic Sea to the southwest. Ireland is an open economy (6th on the Index of Economic Freedom), and ranks first for "high-value" foreign direct investment (FDI) flows. Ireland is a neutral country,[89] and has "triple-lock" rules governing the participation of Irish troops in conflict zones, whereby approval must be given by the UN, the Dáil and Government. Except in Gaeltacht regions, road signs are usually bilingual. Ireland face a mountainous task if they are to topple England at the top of the Autumn Nations Cup tree this weekend. ", "Ireland’s native woodlands are quietly disappearing", "Office of the President – Powers and Functions", "President Michael D promises seven years of new ideas", "Constitution of Ireland - The Courts - Article 34.1", "Transparency In Family And Child Law Proceedings: Disentangling The Statutory Techniques And Terminology", "Poll: Should the Garda Síochána be armed? Saint Patrick is the only one commonly recognised as the patron saint. Pro-treaty forces, led by Michael Collins, argued that the treaty gave "not the ultimate freedom that all nations aspire to and develop, but the freedom to achieve it".[36]. By 1996, over 40,000 Irish service personnel had served in international UN peacekeeping missions. The flag originates with the Young Ireland movement of the mid-19th century but was not popularised until its use during the Easter Rising of 1916. [197] In 2012, Irish students aged 15 years had the second highest levels of reading literacy in the EU. Other significant Protestant denominations are the Presbyterian Church and Methodist Church. Around 40% of the country's population of 4.9 million people resides in the Greater Dublin Area. This represents a 2% decrease from the 2011 census figure of 544,357. [222] The major Hiberno-Norse Longphorts were located on the coast, but with minor inland fluvial settlements, such as the eponymous Longford. Political system. [39] For instance, the President gave assent to new laws with his own authority, without reference to King George VI who was only an "organ", that was provided for by statute law. Examples of popular Irish cuisine include boxty, colcannon, coddle, stew, and bacon and cabbage. Oral answers. The legislation which outlawed homosexual acts was repealed in 1993. Emergency care is provided to patients who present to a hospital emergency department. [114][115] The transfer of this debt means that Ireland, in 2017, still has one of the highest levels of both public sector indebtedness, and private sector indebtedness, in the EU-28/OECD.[116][117][118][119][120][121]. [65] The highest temperature recorded in Ireland was 33.3 °C (91.9 °F) on 26 June 1887 at Kilkenny Castle in Kilkenny, while the lowest temperature recorded was −19.1 °C (−2.4 °F) at Markree Castle in Sligo. Advertisements; Irish people around the world. Barmbrack is a yeasted bread with added sultanas and raisins, traditionally eaten on Halloween. [29] After the Home Rule Bill passed parliament in May 1914, to avoid rebellion with Ulster, the British Prime Minister H. H. 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