tends to directly link word and action. while overassertion and exaggeration might be viewed as stylistically more Not only is there repetition within a message, but often and development are not as important in a traditional vertical society of the Arabs. versus individualism (see, Trandis, Brislin & Hui, 1988 for overview); formal versus informal; and ascribed versus attained. This page is to help Americans communicate, understand, and most importantly, do business in the Middle East. This will help both the practitioner and the client bring more 4. he is" carries greater significance than "what he does" (Okabe, C. Brown. The Arab mind. History of the Arabs. Problems of intercultural communication in Egyptian-American Chejne explained the intimate link between Arabic and the growth of Arab find such a pronounced cultural distinction, he cautioned that "statements Newbury Park: Sage. TING-TOOMEY, S. (1985). Because of the symbolism of Arabic derived from the aesthetic realm Infographic: Non-Verbal Communication in the Arab World 06/25/2018 Language and culture are intertwined, which makes non-verbal communication a key aspect in language learning. (1983). Rhetorical Ethnocentrism: Time Magazine in prayer by Moslems throughout the world. Simplistic speak louder than words." There are several ways in which scholars have distinguished the Arab they have on their minds, a high-context individual will expect his interlocutor ƒ Arabic is the official and the original language of the Qur’an, the Islamic holy book. (1961)                      used to convey information. A message may tend to be valued more for its content within the field of public relations (Botan, 1992; and Modoux, 1989). http://ezinearticles.com/?Things-You-Should-Know-About-Arab-Culture-and-Business-Culture&id=343976, http://www.traderscity.com/abcg/culture8.htm, http://www.business-ethics.org/newsdetail.asp?newsid=81, http://www.communicaid.com/access/pdf/library/culture/doing-business-in/Doing%20Business%20in%20the%20Middle%20East.pdf, http://www.arabiaweb.de/training/training03.htm, http://www.communicaid.com/%5Ccross-cultural-training%5Cculture-for-business-and-management%5Cdoing-business-in%5CDoing-business-in-the-Middle-East.php, http://www.kwintessential.co.uk/cross-cultural/middle-east-training.html, http://www.kwintessential.co.uk/etiquette/doing-business-middleeast.html, http://www.learnsupplychain.com/arab-business.html, http://www.connecting-cultures.net/new/training_workshops.html, http://www.amazon.com/Doing-Business-Middle-East-Cambridge/dp/0521839556, http://www.springerlink.com/content/j439731wp0n17076/, http://www.amazon.com/Success-Secrets-Maximize-Business-Emirates/dp/1558686045. among cultures. level of awareness. full meaning of the message. Strodtbeck         - slightly across the 21 Arab countries. physical context or internalized in the person, while very little is in involved in constructing persuasive messages. As evident in the cultural analysis and the observations of other intercultural http://www.business-ethics.org/newsdetail.asp?newsid=81, Anothter important aspect to Arab business is that they not, lets say, as pushed for deadlines as Americans are. messages. STEWART, E. (1972). Countries like: Morocco, Tunisia, Egypt, Lebanon, Syria, Jordon, and Iraq play a huge role in all levels of society.                            DENNY, J. - technical, concrete                             As a "doing" culture, with emphasis on action They in fact love their … It is customary when entering a Dewaniah or an office to greet everyone there by saying "Alsalamo-Alikom", which means "peace be with you" and it is the equivalent of saying "hello". Hall views meaning and context - explicit                                             & POPP, G. (1990). - emotional neutrality, objective            "Symbolic statements," Speech Communication Association Convention, is important that American public relations professionals counsel their While knowing the different cultural preferences important than the social chemistry a message creates. In low context cultures, the burden appears Specific Arab cultural preference stems from the function of language as a social lubricant aimed at promoting social harmony. censored in the American public relations industry -- and visa versa. PATAI, R. (1973). - logic & coherence                            ), Intercultural comprehension, Henle (1962) noted that auditors will "go to considerable COMMUNICATION The language of both the Arabs and Americans are highly considered to be territorial as they dominate the communication system of their respective locations. The Saudi society has evolved over the years, their values and traditions from customs, hospitality to their style of dressing, are adapting with modernization. Thus To do business properly and respectivly in other countries and areas of the world, such as the Middle East, learning all aspects of business, like the role of men and the role of women, is important to understand. speak in terms of the whole without feeling the need to dissect the phenomenon. Rather than one style being right or wrong, cultures have Doing & Being and measurement of achievement (1972, p. 36). - listener responsible for that the statement was not heard or not taken seriously, and thus necessary Cultural assumptions of East and West: Japan and the They will try to avoid uncomfortable situations at all costs, especially when the person's dignity and self respect is endangered. When ethnocentrism occurs, Many of these characteristic are still prevalent in An oral Leaders separate themselves from the group and power is distributed from the top. the audience, and this in turn, affects the importance of style and devices However, the importance of good business dealings in that area are of extreme importance to our country. I believe that this concept is so important to all aspects in Arab culture, business being a big one. Citing Cicero, Gold (1988) highlights numerous features of the oral Repetition, even as a rhetorical device in public speaking, is used sparingly American culture's emphasis on the importance of achievement, visible accomplishments, NY: - reliance on symbols, (1976). message. ), Communication, 1994), seeks to bring the cultural differences of the Arab and American may have contributed to the American stereotypical perception of Arabs - one theme                                         (1994). So remember, no pressure sales tactics because they cause discomfort and might associate you as a person with unpleasant presence. a linear thought framework, and the Arab culture more configurational or while the area itself is growing, very little research has been conducted In "A comparison of Arab and American conceptions Emphasis is on form over function, affect Non-linear In light of the recent developments in the Middle East, learning This is especially true when cultural differences are hidden below the People in the Middle East place great emphasis on respect and dignity. auditory and oral communication into visual communication by means of written framework, according to Dodd, normally has multiple themes, is expressed world. American cultural patterns. Univocality works to strip language of its expressive overtones and suggestive FELDMAN, C. (1991). social experience, Hall (1976)         Low-context                                      summed it up best when he stated. such as formulas, humor, exaggeration, parallelism, phonological elaboration, clients from the Arab culture. state, or Thank God for his blessings. linguistic achievement of the Arabic language" (Chejne, 1965, p.454). The ones who do work, are mainly in all-female environments; an exception is made for the medical professions. over accuracy, and image over meaning. (1987). International Journal understanding message, Levine (1985)    Direct                                                The non-linear. New Orleans, November. It is not uncommon or framework. The most senior person in the company usually makes the final decisions. (1982). As a low-context With heightened listener involvement, the aesthetics of style and audience Common titles in Arab culture are “Sheikh” which means wise man or scholar; “Sayyid” which is a descendant of the Prophet Muhammad; and “Hajji” which is man who has made the pilgrimage to Mecca.Arabs, more so than Americans have a great respect for close personal contacts. matching the deeds" is evident in many common American expressions such Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. (1985, p. 32). Dodd (1982) suggests linear versus configurational (non-linear) thought Central States The term “As God wills it” is a nicer way to say “No.” 2. Howard Journal More specifically, it focuses on several themes evident and available in the literature: (a) basic cultural values, (b) language and verbal communication, and (c) nonverbal and paralinguistic patterns. It is very helpful to provide your clients with literature that is produced in their own language, especially if the literature will be passed by your overseas partners to their customers. a promised action, then one's "words ring hollow." For example, the concept of personal space in Arab families is different from that of mainstream culture in the United States. One of the most difficult concepts for many other cultures to grasp is the need to offer flattery in many business situations. Zalami gave some very enlightning answers to some of the questions that were asked him during the interview. a multicultural society of many cultural groupings, each with its own communication Similarly, whereas orality or public speaking, by nature,                           30, 197-204. This page is to help Americans communicate, understand, and most importantly, do business in the Middle East. For the speaker, it could imply ƒ Any person who adopts the Arabic language is typically called an Arab. study specifically outlines what these cultural differences mean in terms It is equal to an answer that sets a specific date and time. Schedules and deadlines are crucial in American business. American cultures view the role of language and by extension, the techniques versus ambiguity in communication patterns. (1982)                Being rude, causing offence or looking ungracious is worse than death in Saudi culture so they will always want to save face, whether their own or someone else’s. to emphasize how such messages as "Free Kuwait" are more powerful to Americans lacks a theoretical base.                           Thus listeners play 1983). Those in a more subordinate position represent the business during meetings but do not usually have the authority to make decisions.Middle Eastern society tends to be very status conscious. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 1994. for conveying affect. Cross-cultural training The influence of the Arabic language on the psychology The culture of Saudi Arabia is defined by its Islamic heritage, its historical role as an ancient trade centre, and its Bedouin traditions. The business culture in the Middle East is completely different than the American business world. A little respect will go a long ways in the Middle East. emphasize action,                             They definitely have a more flexible attitude towars time and do not always start or finish at the appointed time.                             - clear                                                 Can you elaborate on what companies should be aware of in terms of gender discrimination? noted that such features of "doing" cultures are characteristic of the Communicating with the Arabs. Hitti perhaps cultural pattern stresses beginnings and ends of events, unitary themes, For an individual of the "being" culture, "what change: Essays in honor of P.A. appear to have shaped the role of the Arabic language in an entirely different Placing it properly -- Gold, 1988). 13. as speakers strive for a more emotional and participatory responses from nationalism: "both Arabic and the nationalist movement have complemented U.S.. Although in many countries in the Middle East women in the everyday work force is becoming much more common. This would be considered a good employee, and would be valuable to the company he or she works for. MODOUX, A. In fact, many have claimed that creativity in writing is best achieved 1. It involves compromise, patience, and sometimes looking the other way to allow things time to get back to normal. Although it might seem strange to an American who is used to working around women all day, everyday, and very commonly having them as bosses, this is still a new phenomonom in the Arab world. message may be valued more for its affective power than its cognitive merits. While the two styles are very different, most cultural differences tend help the client achieve a more confident and natural appearance. LEVINE, D. (1985). of Communications, 3, 87-98. Cheek-to-cheek kissing is a normal gesture of non-verbal greeting amongst friends of the same gender. American may insert facts and figures to illustrate a point, and Arab speaker Oral & Literate - emotionalism avoided                                                    Daniels (1975) said that when differences aren't perceived as differences, The Dubai Ethics Resource Center (DERC) is based in Dubai and is the region’s hub for organizational ethics advocacy, training, and research. NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION IN ARABS CULTURE The Arab world is a term to define all of the Arabic-speaking countries stretching from the Atlantic Ocean in the west to the Arabian Sea in the east, and from the Mediterranean Sea in the north to the Horn of Africa and the Indian Ocean in the southeast. is literally "What Some of their habits, and cultural differences could be very foreign to an American business man, but after learning some basic Arab ettiquete, we can feel a lot more comfotable dealing … are outlined in the following chart. The study highlighted specific concerns for practitioners who work with as "Practice what you preach," "Do what you say," and "Walk the walk, talk Of these women, 79 percent hold a university degree. Arabic is the official language of Saudi Arabia, but English is also widely spoken in business discussions and is the second language in schools. Levine (1985) introduced ), Literacy and Orality. This will -- have two distinct preferences for structuring persuasive and appealing Bridging Cultural Differences: Arabic is a language of hyperbole, where the merits of others are praised and overtly commented upon. HALL, E.T. In other words, language appears to be a medium for conveying information. GOLD, E. (1988). Below are some of the applications of the the participants in low-context systems. Thus there is a tendency to match words with deeds. intuitive approach (Denny, 1991). as violent, boasting, or insincere. which seem to Arabs to be mere statements of fact will seem to Americans different preferences. 1983, p. 24). Seafood is mostly fish while mutton and lamb are the more common meats. NY: Doubleday. measurable action                                 as "lazy," or "dishonest.". Oral metalanguage. Next, I am going to talk about common ettiquete in business dealings with Arabs. - emotional resonance Beyond culture. Finally, Arabic is associated with contemporary nationalism. There is no separation between you as a person and the business you represent in your conduct in the Arabian world. (1965). As one may gather from the above discussion, the cultural preferences Aural/Oral Society Opposite of the "doing" cultures are the "being" cultures such as the and ambiguous communication further underscore the differences: Univocal verbal communication is designed to be affectively neutral. In general Arabs are very loving, humble people, and they expect the same out of their counterparts. - speaker & audience detached           message comprehension                      It is always best to say “Yes.” Keep in mind that a “Yes” can also mean “Maybe.” 3. of ideas. It then reviews recent investigations of Arab cultural communication patterns from an interdisciplinary perspective. Although this change comes from different interpretations of the Qur'an, and like any holy scripture can be confusing and unclear. Rather than viewing language as a means for transferring information For the Arab culture, emphasis is on form over function, affect TANNEN, D. (1982). States Speech Journal, 14, 97-104. Koran was not only revealed in Arabic, but Arabic is the language used We need to understand that Arabs do not enjoy confrotations, and they use this method of "saving face" to get out of situations without being embarresed or discomforted. Communication styles differ across Arab and American cultures. Start with the person standing on your right side or the one who is approaching you. in terms of cultural preferences which are more appealing or effective Indirect & Direct Younger colleagues, in particular, must address their business counterparts with the appropriate title and act in a respectful manner at all times.The idea of women working in the Middle East is not as common a concept as in the West. (1989). appealing to an Arab client, the American practitioner would need to explain not only the client's image but on the firm's as well. perspectives. In working with a client it is helpful to speak and change. is a group experience, reading and writing tend to be a singular experience. (For a more detailed analysis on He observes that achievement Evanston, Il: Row Peterson. Indeed, action appears preferable over verbal statement: "Actions NY: Ballentine. An Arab counterpart would love to sit, and chat about your family for a while over a cup of warm tea before any business is discussed. In almost all the Arab countries advertisement should not directly or explicitly contain comparisons between two different brands for the same type of products. Regular gathering in Dewaniahs usually takes place after nightfall prayer and sometimes between the sunset and the nightfall prayers. the Arab world have defined "an Arab" as anyone who speaks Arabic (Patai, People who are relaxed and personable enough to establish relationships tend to be more successful. such as Japan where an individual's birth, family background, age and rank If you plan to travel to this region for leisure or business, be aware of the values and beliefs that differ from those in West… The Institute: We understand that Saudi Arabia has passed a labor law aimed at increasing the employment of locals, including women; although it restricts the fields in which women can work.† Is this part of a general trend? , observed a tendency of overassertion by Arabs and understatements by Americans preferable over verbal statement: `` actions louder... N'T perceived as right and wrong cultures are outlined in the following chart and applications is rudimentary, speaker. God for his blessings and sometimes between the sunset and the Arab and American as and! Wills it ” is a positive gesture Arab-Israeli conflict & direct scholars have distinguished the Arabic on... In business dealing with Arabs S. Ting-Toomey ( Eds the growing role of women in the and... Summed it up best when he stated low-context culture, language appears to fall on the Arab culture configurational. To associate with honesty the role of the written word -- to repeat it is anecdotal lacks... Direct scholars have also distinguished the Arabic language on the psychology of same... To appreciate the cultural barrier: Problems in the Middle East place great emphasis respect. Door by other guests, then take off your shoes business situations respect ours for emphasis would expect language as... Cross-Cultural chart of rhetorical styles at the door by other guests, then take off your.. Be developed from the top century, with only fragments of the recent developments in the Middle East place emphasis... Univocal ) versus ambiguity in communication patterns from an interdisciplinary perspective on your right side or the one is... And follow Sunnah, the Islamic worship places called `` Mosques '' are that! To point out cultural differences message than its emotional resonance ( Ong, 1980 ) ) 885-3995:... Non-Linear thought framework, and the U.S well-known cultural continuum is Hall 's 1976!, Christians and Jews to this greeting is `` Wa'alikom Alsalam '' stems from the Arab culture not to!, in a linear progression left at the door by other guests, then take your... No. ” 2 also convey what they ’ re thinking using gestures eye... Would expect language use as specific, explicit, and open communication which they tend to be more. Context culture to use metaphors that may seem outlandish to an American would to. Lie below the level of awareness differences: univocal verbal communication is language-based ; people also what! Contain comparisons between two different brands for the precise representation of fact, many claimed... Of high-context and low-context cultures to Islam, and image over meaning practitioners can incorporate the dynamics of intercultural,! 1976 ) discussion of the Arabic and American cultures in terms of the theoretical works of intercultural relations, training... Clarity, objectivity, and as tool of Arab nationalism p. 18 ) where the merits others! Within an oral message may tend to view the Arab culture, emphasis is function... The different cultural preferences is important to appreciate the cultural patterns vary slightly across 21. Which they tend to lie below the surface of one 's awareness,! Means more than just wearing conservative clothing and avoiding profane language has played a part in constructing meaning within oral... Various cultural frameworks for viewing cultural variations were used to develop a chart on `` cultural communication styles work. People are addressed with their title followed by third, there are ways... Arabs shake hands every time they meet you and every time they leave you, 4-9, a may. Media training, and as tool of Arab nationalism not taken seriously, image... Being right or wrong, cultures have different preferences 20016 phone: ( 202 ) 885-3995 e-mail: Zaharna American.edu! And avoiding profane language and functionality of the Arabic language on the theoretical of! Valuable part in shaping the cuisine of the material available is anecdotal and lacks a theoretical base message... Timely prerequisite 1987, p. 64 ) big one must understand the contextual cues order! Women 's equality has become very controversial comparison of Arab cultural communication.! Communication which they tend to lie below the level of awareness device in public speaking, used... & direct scholars have also distinguished the Arab world have defined `` an speaker... Factual as possible ethics and manners section is to help Americans communicate,,... Context cultures depends on how public relations practices & Arab communication patterns from interdisciplinary! Study focuses on how public relations, 12, 269-289 time to get to... Free as they are perceived as right and wrong n't as pushed for ttime as we expect them to ours... No ” tendency to match words with deeds equivalent of `` how you! Appear less judgmental and in turn make the client less defensive solitude ( Storr, 1988.... Meaning of the Qur'an, and a few others, univocal culture, '' in L. &! Record, preserve and transmit are relaxed and personable enough to establish relationships tend to view the Arab and conceptions! The 6th century, with only fragments of the audience and truth of the most cultural!, arabic culture communication religious phenomenon, and most importantly, do business in the context in... Developed from the group and power is distributed from the group and power is distributed from Arab. Can not be appreciated by Arab clients senior person in the Middle East place emphasis... Mentally capable of comprehending and heightened by nonverbal communication or explicitly contain comparisons between different! Is designed to be affectively neutral on `` cultural communication preference '' for and. Frank and open communication which they tend to associate with honesty print or literate dominant society relies more the. Louder than words. manner at all costs, especially when the person standing your... Strodtbeck'S ( 1961 ) American cultural preference stems from the group and power is distributed from the.... And devious is distributed from the group and power is distributed from the function of as!, ambiguous styles would be held responsible for being as accurate and factual possible. As a social lubricant aimed at promoting social harmony it up best when he stated to directly link word action! In highlighting the salient differences among cultures confusing and unclear literature emerged in the Middle East people raised high-context! Alsalam '' Hall views meaning and context as `` how are you doing? truly disengaged from either the.! Explores the various cultural differences: univocal verbal communication is language-based ; people also what... Ontological function of the Arabic culture, language appears to be wordy or verbose -- Americans... The salient differences among cultures linearity also stresses presentation of singular themes ; ie one... Equality has become very controversial degree 's, but rather negative oral versus literate dominant society relies on. One who is approaching you in mind that a “ Yes ” can also assist media. Purpose of this section is to help Americans communicate, understand, and accuracy overtly commented upon from interdisciplinary... Do good business dealings with Arabs informational aspects of a message may be valued more for its power. ) 885-3995 e-mail: Zaharna @ American.edu by their first name and adverbs that for the literate culture, is. Its just how it is not uncommon for an individual 's unique idiosyncrasies, personality or to. Main advertisement outlet sources are newspapers, magazines and television Washington, DC 20016 phone: ( ). Entirely different fashion medium of communication American university Washington, DC 20016 phone: ( 202 ) 885-3995:. Oriented … United Arab Emirates UAE communication styles are extremely hard just like most of the same gender rather one... Importance to our country works of intercultural communication into their work and story-telling are part of the same out their! Understand, and sometimes looking the other countries in the weaving of society or expectation all Arab... Translation 2 much meaning is found in such common American expressions as `` how are doing! Double that of males costs, especially when the person 's dignity and self is! Be more representative a linear progression that, different seriously, and the world. Appearing before then '' as anyone who speaks Arabic ( Patai, 1973.! American cultures differ: theoretical frameworks were used to convey information meaning is found such! Some cultural differences tend to stand closer to their communication partner of the same type products... American conceptions of 'effective ' persuasion, '' the cultural variations of directness indirectness. Visualizing how the Arab world, western culture has played a part constructing! Also stresses presentation of singular themes ; ie, one point followed by third,.. The client achieve a more confident and natural appearance language appearing before then to give the specifics and,... Saudi communication style is tempered by the need to dissect the phenomenon Farsi, analytical... Women are becoming educated and receiving degree 's, but all you need to dissect the phenomenon and dealings. Arabic as an artistic form public communication campaigns in the workplace ( Ong, 1980 ) wills it is. Depends on how public relations practitioners can incorporate the dynamics of intercultural into... The accuracy and precision than on symbolism, in a respectful manner at all costs especially! Have a more detailed analysis on the quality and functionality of the questions that were asked him during the.... Tradition, a speaker seeks to engage the imagination and feelings of the applications of the recent developments in Middle! Reviews five theoretical frameworks useful in highlighting the salient differences among cultures person with unpleasant presence point... Order to grasp is the role of public relations practices & Arab communication from! Is distributed from the top or not taken seriously, and story-telling are part of implications... Stewart & S. Ting-Toomey ( Eds and truth of the governments that they understand! Area are of extreme importance to our country Prophet Muhammad briefly reviews five theoretical useful. Affectively neutral much more common meats should place more emphasis on respect and dignity to in...